Indonesia’s final energy demand in terms of fuel oil is projected to 32.8 % of national energy needs by 2030. The consumption of fuel oil (BBM) in Indonesia is still dominated by the transport sector and to meet the shortage of fuel supply for domestic consumption, the government of Indonesia have to import crude oil and oil products. One of the problems regarding the success of Indonesia’s energy security not only in the legal framework nor the technology. The existing policies on energy security has to be comprehensive enough to support the implementation of the strategy. Furthermore, the existing technology regarding energy security that Indonesia currently has had been our advantage. The problem is the implementation on field. Government’s goodwill to firmly act and implement policies in all of the government’s sectors such as economy, industry, research and technology, trade, the environment and all energy-related sectors are the key success factors of the energy security’s strategic to meet its goal.
As an example related to the energy sector is a matter of technology. Government through Kementerian Riset dan Teknologi (Kemenristek) has made a bio-ethanol road map technology for 2005-2010 and plan the bio-ethanol consumption to exchange by 2% of the premium utilization (0.43 million kL). Furthermore, in 2011-2015 the percentage utilization of bio-ethanol enhanced to 3% of the premium consumption (1.0 million kL), and later in the period 2016-2025, the percentage utilization of bio-ethanol was increased to 5% of the premium consumption (2.8 million kL). However, to met the goal of the road map, currently there are no comprehensive strategic plan and integrated document established yet.
Lot of things that should be the government’s attention in the development of biofuels as one of the energy security strategy. As an example, in terms of technology development, Indonesia’s rich biodiversity still have to do a collaboration with foreign parties for research on microbial fermentation to biofuels (see also conversion scheme of Bahan Bakar Nabati below). It shows about the technology that we currently have is not independent yet. Otherwise, it doesn’t mean that we don’t have to cooperate with foreign parties, but it would be better if we can do it alone. Cooperation with foreign research must be conducted in the development of massive technologies, for example, the development of second and third generation biofuels that utilize natural materials that have less overlap with land use and food security. The development of those biofuels still need encourage and cooperation with other parties because we have abundant resources but lack of experience and implementation. An example is the development of biofuels from algae feedstock. It can be produced in water (do not spend the land) and also at present, the utilization of the abundant algae still not absorbed by the domestic market to be used as food ingredients.
Further on the issue of overlapping land and food security, biofuel management should not be a problem but it can be an opportunity. As already mentioned that Indonesia has high biodiversity and vast lands so it does our strength. Therefore, it should be considered to make a database for the potential area of biofuel feedstock’s crops in each province, completed with an area that allows for planting. It is often the case that these data is held only on potential area alone, so the problems are came up about how it can not be developed due to the allotment of land. It is often that a conflict of interest with forestry or other land use issues are came up as well as the land conflict to the local custom (local wisdom) especially regarding that Indonesia has had known consisted of many local wisdom.
The issues of energy security have also has to consider the community empowerment as one of its targets. Governments of developed countries, for example Brazil, successfully developed the biofuel to fulfill their energy security and in the mean time also meet a sustainable development by utilizing the potential of biofuels and land biodiversity. In addition, the government is also keen to help small businesses and medium enterprises that involved in the development of biofuels. It has also increased to the level of the economy by means of green economy. It is an equilibrium of fulfilling the demand as well as keep the sustainable of the natural capital. Furthermore, as mentioned in the introduction that the Indonesian population growth rate will continue to rise and lead to higher energy demand, the development of labor-intensive biofuel can also be one of the strategies that is urgent to be optimally implemented.
In accordance with the Indonesian law of energy, it states that energy security establishment must also environmentally friendly. It is being another important consideration that support the development of biofuels as an energy security strategy to be implemented urgently. Biofuel utilization was qualified all aspects as a green solution with minimal environmental emissions and environmental impact. However, there are some notes that the development should involve an appropriate technologies (2nd or 3rd biofuels technology) and the selection of the right raw materials (non-overlapping problems of land and food, and also meet the economic price). Therefore, once again it is necessary to achieve a strong goodwill of the government, the supervision and coordination in all relevant sectors to met the goal of biofuel utilization as a solution of energy and food security in Indonesia.
BPPT. Outlook Energy Indonesia 2012. Badan Pengkajian dan Penerapan Teknologi.
BPPT. 2012. BPPT Gandeng Industri Jepang Kembangkan Teknologi Pemanfaatan Biomassa. http://w1.bppt.go.id/index.php/home/56-bioteknologi-dan-farmasi/1169-bppt-gandeng-industri-jepang-kembangkan-teknologi-pemanfaatan-biomassa.
NREL-AFOSR Workshop, Algal Oil for Jet Fuel NREL-AFOSR Workshop, Algal Oil for Jet Fuel Production, Arlington, VA February 19th , 2008. The Overview: Algae Oil to Biofuels (annotated presentation). http://www.nrel.gov/biomass/pdfs/benemann.pdf