The 3rd GENERATION BIOFUELS AS ENERGY AND FOOD SECURITY SOLUTIONS IN INDONESIA

             Indonesia’s  final energy demand in terms of fuel oil is projected to 32.8 % of national energy needs by 2030. The consumption of fuel oil (BBM) in Indonesia is still dominated by the transport sector and to meet the shortage of fuel supply for domestic consumption, the government of Indonesia have to import crude oil and oil products. One of the problems regarding the success of Indonesia’s energy security not only in the legal framework nor the technology. The existing policies on energy security has to be comprehensive enough to support the implementation of the strategy.  Furthermore, the existing technology regarding energy security that Indonesia currently has had been our advantage. The problem is the implementation on field.  Government’s goodwill to firmly act and implement  policies in all of the government’s sectors such as  economy, industry, research and technology, trade, the environment and all energy-related sectors are the key success factors of the energy security’s strategic to meet its goal.

            As an example related to the energy sector is a matter of technology. Government through Kementerian Riset dan Teknologi (Kemenristek) has made a bio-ethanol road map technology for 2005-2010 and plan the bio-ethanol consumption to exchange by 2% of the premium utilization (0.43 million kL).  Furthermore, in 2011-2015 the percentage utilization of bio-ethanol enhanced to 3% of the premium consumption (1.0 million kL), and later in the period 2016-2025, the percentage utilization of bio-ethanol was increased to 5% of the premium consumption (2.8 million kL). However,  to met the goal of the road map, currently there are no comprehensive strategic plan and integrated document established yet.

Lot of things that should be the government’s attention in the development of biofuels as one of the energy security strategy. As an example, in terms of technology development, Indonesia’s rich biodiversity still have to do a collaboration with foreign parties for research on microbial fermentation to biofuels (see also conversion scheme of Bahan Bakar Nabati below). It shows about the technology that we currently have is not independent yet.  Otherwise, it doesn’t mean that we don’t have to cooperate with foreign parties, but it would be better if we can do it alone. Cooperation with foreign research must be conducted in the development of massive technologies, for example, the development of second and third generation biofuels that utilize natural materials that have less overlap with land use and food security. The development of those biofuels still need encourage and cooperation with other parties because we have abundant resources but lack of experience and implementation. An example is the development of biofuels from algae feedstock. It can be produced in water (do not spend the land) and also at present, the utilization of the abundant algae still not absorbed by the domestic market to be used as food ingredients.

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Further on the issue of overlapping land and  food security, biofuel management should  not be a problem but it  can be an opportunity.  As already mentioned  that Indonesia has high biodiversity and vast lands so it does our strength. Therefore, it should be considered to make a database for the ​​potential area of biofuel feedstock’s crops in each province, completed with an area that allows for planting. It is often the case that these data is held only on potential area alone, so the problems are came up about how it can not be developed due to the allotment of land. It is often that a conflict of interest with forestry or other land use issues are came up as well as the land conflict to the local custom (local wisdom) especially regarding that Indonesia has had known consisted of many local wisdom.

The issues of energy security have also has to consider the community empowerment as one of its targets. Governments of developed countries, for example Brazil, successfully developed the biofuel to fulfill their energy security and in the mean time also meet a sustainable development by utilizing the potential of biofuels and land biodiversity. In addition, the government is also keen to help small businesses and medium enterprises that involved in the development of biofuels.  It has also increased to the level of the economy by means of green economy. It is an equilibrium of fulfilling the demand as well as keep the sustainable of the natural capital.  Furthermore, as mentioned in the introduction that the Indonesian population growth rate will continue to rise and lead to higher energy demand, the development of labor-intensive biofuel can also be one of the strategies that is urgent to be optimally implemented.

In accordance with the Indonesian law of energy, it states that energy security establishment must also environmentally friendly. It is being another important consideration that support the development of biofuels as an energy security strategy to be implemented urgently. Biofuel utilization was qualified all aspects as a green solution with minimal environmental emissions and environmental impact. However, there are some notes that the development should involve an appropriate technologies (2nd or 3rd biofuels technology) and the selection of the right raw materials (non-overlapping problems of land and food, and also meet the economic price). Therefore, once again it is necessary to achieve a strong goodwill of the government, the supervision and coordination in all relevant sectors to met the goal of biofuel utilization as a solution of energy and food security in Indonesia.

 

References:

BPPT. Outlook Energy Indonesia 2012. Badan Pengkajian dan Penerapan Teknologi.

BPPT. 2012. BPPT Gandeng Industri Jepang Kembangkan Teknologi Pemanfaatan Biomassa. http://w1.bppt.go.id/index.php/home/56-bioteknologi-dan-farmasi/1169-bppt-gandeng-industri-jepang-kembangkan-teknologi-pemanfaatan-biomassa.

NREL-AFOSR Workshop, Algal Oil for Jet Fuel NREL-AFOSR Workshop, Algal Oil for Jet Fuel Production, Arlington, VA February 19th , 2008. The Overview: Algae Oil to Biofuels (annotated presentation). http://www.nrel.gov/biomass/pdfs/benemann.pdf

 

 

Global Carbon FootPrint

Top 12 country listed as the global polluter. And hey yaaahhhh……Indonesia is on the list !!! In contrary, we are listed too as the 2nd highest biodiversity and having high rate of GDP, but suffering in the middle of energy crisis and struggling to overcome poverty. Wake up Indonesia !! I love u !!!

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http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/energy/great-energy-challenge/global-footprints/ 

Managing Energy in Jakarta, the city of the shopping centre.

Human need for energy is an absolute willingness, especially in the modern era like today that rely on technological life. Technological advancements lead to dependence on the supply of sufficient energy, particularly in the form of electrical energy. Numerous recent studies suggest that the rate of electricity consumption Indonesia continues to increase. It is directly proportional to the increase in economic growth and population growth. Demand for electricity is expected to increase in the long run according to the rate of speed of both these factors. On the other hand, the increase in electricity consumption pose dilemma for the government to provide guarantees of availability. Energy is one of the important components in the construction activities. With the increasing acceleration of development today, population growth and increasing living standards caused the rate of energy consumption is increasing as well. Without doing business save energy, will result in depletion of energy in a relatively short time and the impact of a sustainable development can not be realized.

Energy use in Indonesia can be categorized into industry sectors household commercial buildings and transportation. Energy use in the industrial and commercial buildings is quite high compared to the others so that the need to focus on energy conservation. The growing economy with more and more establishments recorded a commercial building because it specifically for commercial buildings need to be energy conservation measures before and after the construction of commercial buildings.

     Indonesia,especially Jakarta, is a city of malls and shopping centers. Energy management is more of an issue that should be realized due to too much waste of energy occurs in a mall. Please count when added up all the malls in jakarta, how much energy that has already wasted?

but in contrast, the mall is still the most important means of entertainment for the people of the city to unwind routines. still have a long way for the government to conduct audits and energy management in the industrial sector shopping center, but it is not impossible as long as there intentions and hard work.

Is it necessary to continue subsidizing the fuel price in Indonesia ?

At present, domestic fuel demand is high and not comparable to that can be provided by domestic production. Therefore, the government chose the option to import fuel using state funds. It raises the pros and cons regarding the absorption of state budget funds to import fuel expense allocated to other expenditure purposes. Furthermore, based on the reasons for avoiding the “social Unrest”, the government issued a policy of fuel subsidy which again take state funds.

Here are some facts about the dispute over fuel supply issues with the latest data (2013):
• Gasoline is expected to continue growing at a rate of 11% per year, while diesel is 5% per year

• limited capacity of the refinery gasoline, 1122 barrels / day, with the production of gasoline, in 2012, approximately 10.8 million kilo liters (KL) and diesel about 20 million KL.

• Supply of crude oil in the country is also limited. In 2012, the domestic requirement of 1533 thousand barrels per day, and imports reached 715 thousand barrels of oil per day (47% of the national fuel consumption).

• The Posture of ABPN for other purposes are diminished. Fluctuation of international oil market also directly in the ‘absorp’ by the state  budget, and frequently revised.

• State revenues in the oil and gas sector to fund fuel subsidy practical. When coupled with electricity subsidies, which in 2012 reached Rp. 93 trillion, energy subsidies reached Rp.310 trillion. Thus, practically depleted oil and gas revenues from subsidies for energy (fuel and electricity)

• The amount of subsidies provided in the state budget depends on four (4) factors:
a) domestic fuel needs (volume of subsidized fuel);
b) world oil prices are a benchmark – ie, MOPS;
c) the value of the Rupiah against the USD;
d) the structure of subsidized fuel prices in the country.
Unless the structure of subsidized fuel prices, other factors are
outside of the government control.

 

what It is remains unclear about to understanding the question,” Is it necessary to continue subsidizing the fuel price in Indonesia ?”.

Indigenous Energy for Indonesia

Indigenous energy is defined as potential energy, both fossil fuels (oil and coal) and non-fossil energy (water, wind, biomass, nuclear, solar and biofuels) are typically owned by a particular region. In this context it means that every region has their indigenous energy. Indonesia as an archipelagic country with geography and typography are very diverse, resulting in the potential of indigenous energy in each region can vary as well as their exploration and optimalization. Indonesia as an archipelagic country, can not rely it’s energy demands only on fossil fuels. There is a discrepancy of fossil fuels as an energy source for use in various regions of Indonesia. The issue is the failure to meet the availability, purchasing power, distribution and infrastructure that must be prepared.

Deeper study of the potential of non fossil energy indigenous to each island in the border region remains to be done in order to optimize it’s use. Thus, it can be ascertained that it is the need for better integration between all components and local governments, for optimizing the indigenous energy, particularly in each area of ​​the island nation’s leading border can be applied and eventually led the region achieve energy independence. Furthermore, energy independence can support the sovereignty of Homeland security in the region directly adjacent to other countries and is prone to lose its boundary.

Clean coal technology in Indonesia *IMHO*

The Availability of energy to meet the needs turned out to have an impact on the exploration of the natural resources that can be used for fuel. After the issue of the depletion of oil reserves, coal fossil fuels become an option to be explored. However, the use of coal as fuel sparked controversy about the environmental impact caused by the closely related carbon emissions, SOx and NOx. It has been issued on coal production from upstream to downstream. Clean coal technology  is the use of coal fuel technology that considers the impact of emissions on the environment. Clean coal technology can be applied at the time, before, or after the combustion takes place. One technology that even negate the burning of coal is the coal liquefaction with biotechnology.

Nowadays, There are many research publications on the conversion of coal to biotechnology. In theory, biotechnology should be developed as an efficient way to clean coal technologies that will produce the equivalent of oil and diesel fuel, but with minimal environmental impact (including researches done by BPPT, and others).  Indonesia have done so many researches about it. However, the application of biotechnology is still the last alternatives in the plan development of clean coal technology in Indonesia, caused by the weakness of legal tools so does less of public and government awareness of sustainable energy. But in my humble opinion, we are who decide to be or not to be, to choose from the options.

Sumber gambar: http://old.indonesiafinancetoday.com/gallery/post/MTVlMDA0M2ViYzc0Y2UyYTYyMjA0ZjdlNTRiZGMyNzkuanBn